Overture from Il Sogno di Scipione (Full Score)

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The latter, here, are two attractive and powerful women, strongly characterized.

Symphony, K. 161 (Mozart)

The third female personification of the evening, Licenza, was here a confident and good-natured, if slightly ditzy woman. Scipione is a rather hapless young man struggling to define his place in the world; it is a tribute to Alden's production that his eventual success carried Everyman resonance. Thursday, April 19, Della traviata sorridi al desio. Sunday, April 15, Rheingold: Vollendet das ewige Werk. Friday, April 13, Mozart on life and death: Orchestra of St. Luke's at Carnegie Hall. Thursday night saw the Beloved Flatmate and me at Carnegie Hall for the last in a very satisfying series of subscription concerts.

This was my first time hopefully the first of many hearing the excellent Orchestra of St. Luke's live. The Thirty-Fourth Symphony was joyous and graceful, with subtle changes in dynamics like shared merriment, exuberant fanfares, and interwoven musical themes like dancers in a brightly-lit room.

Labels: Patricia Racette. Manon is described as a sphinx even by her lover Des G rieux, and treated as a creature of caprice, but Laurent Pelly's production makes her a passionate young woman who pursues her own goals, playing perilous games with a hypocritical society. Maybe it was partially the updating to the s which made me see the Manon of this production as a figure parallel to De Maupassant's Georges Duroy Bel Ami : a provincial set on conquering Paris, an individual of insignificant antecedents but extraordinary personal beauty, for whom sex is not only a sensual pleasure, but a weapon of social conquest.

The tone of Pelly's production seemed, like the opera's heroine, to hesitate between laughter and tears without quite knowing why. The voyeurism of male -dominated society was highlighted, as were Manon's resolute attempts at self-assertion within that society. In short, the production, while not devoid of style or ideas, did not always seem to have the courage of its convictions. Fabio Luisi's leadership of the Met orchestra was light of touch, and sensitive to the quicksilver undercurrents in the score. Even when Massenet's characters dissemble, his orchestra reveals what they are thinking and feeling; Luisi and the Met forces did so with subtlety nearly always, and with well-timed escalations of passionate intensity.

I especially appreciated the nuanced handling of the frequent ostinati in the strings, and the fine work of the woodwinds throughout. Anne-Carolyn Bird , with an agile, bright soprano and vivid presence, made a memorable Poussette.

Scipio - download free sheet music and scores

Paulo Szot sounded somewhat grainy, but made a charismatic and thoroughly caddish Lescaut. Nissen died in having only written a small portion of the work, it was completed from his notes by others. Stafford writes: "Sometimes Nissen corrects the chunks he borrows, he tells the reader that he has done this Assembling his narrative with scissors and paste , he allows contradictions to creep in.

Vincent and Mary Novello made a pilgrimage to Salzburg in , to visit Mozart's surviving relatives and to provide financial support to Nannerl.

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They did interviews of Nannerl and Mozart's sister-in-law Sophie Haibel , but never converted this material into a biography; the diaries were discovered and published in A important Mozart biography was that published in by Otto Jahn. Jahn brought a new standard of scholarship to the field, it is still active as a scholarly document, circulating in versions revised first by Hermann Abert by the contemporary Mozart scholar Cliff Eisen.

The Mozart scholar Otto Erich Deutsch produced a cited "documentary" biography, in which most of the material is reprinted documentary evidence, tied together by Deutsch's own commentary. A follow-up volume with additional documents was published in by Eisen.

Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart - Il sogno di Scipione KV 126

A great number of additional biographies exist, of which notably recent ones include those by Volkmar Braunbehrens , Maynard Solomon , Ruth Halliwell. An important 20th century trend was the use of careful analysis of both handwriting and watermarks to provide more accurate dates for the works Mozart composed. Two standouts were Wolfgang Plath ; the two obtained converging evidence. Work by Michael Lorenz has established the correct name of the person for whom the Ninth Piano Concerto was written. A web site launched by Dexter Edge and David Black continues the tradition established by Deutsch and Eisen, with a compilation of newly discovered or noticed.

Oboe Oboes belong to the classification of double reed woodwind instruments. Oboes are made of wood, but there are oboes made of synthetic materials; the most common oboe plays in the soprano range. A soprano oboe measures 65 cm long, with metal keys, a conical bore and a flared bell. Sound is produced by blowing into the reed at a sufficient air pressure, causing it to vibrate with the air column; the distinctive tone is versatile and has been described as "bright".

When the word oboe is used alone, it is taken to mean the treble instrument rather than other instruments of the family, such as the bass oboe, the cor anglais, or oboe d'amore A musician who plays the oboe is called an oboist. Today, the oboe is used in concert bands, chamber music, film music, some genres of folk music, as a solo instrument, heard in jazz , rock and popular music. In comparison to other modern woodwind instruments, the treble oboe is sometimes referred to as having a clear and penetrating voice; the Sprightly Companion, an instruction book published by Henry Playford in , describes the oboe as "Majestical and Stately, not much Inferior to the Trumpet.

In the play Angels in America the sound is described as like "that of a duck if the duck were a songbird ". The rich timbre is derived from its conical bore; as a result, oboes are easier to hear over other instruments in large ensembles due to its penetrating sound.

Orchestras tune to a concert A played by the first oboe. According to the League of American Orchestras , this is done because the pitch is secure and its penetrating sound makes it ideal for tuning; the pitch of the oboe is affected by the way. The reed has a significant effect on the sound.

Variations in cane and other construction materials, the age of the reed, differences in scrape and length all affect the pitch. German and French reeds , for instance, differ in many ways. Weather conditions such as temperature and humidity affect the pitch. Skilled oboists adjust their embouchure to compensate for these factors. Subtle manipulation of embouchure and air pressure allows the oboist to express timbre and dynamics.

Most professional oboists make their reeds to suit their individual needs. By making their reeds, oboists can control factors such as tone color and responsiveness. Novice oboists may begin with a Fibrecane reed, made of a synthetic material. Commercially available cane reeds are available in several degrees of hardness ; these reeds, like clarinet and bassoon reeds, are made from Arundo donax.

As oboists gain more experience, they may start making their own reeds after the model of their teacher or buying handmade reeds and using special tools including gougers, pre-gougers, guillotines and other tools to make the reed to their liking. According to the late John Mack , former principal oboist of the Cleveland Orchestra , an oboe student must fill a laundry basket with finished reeds in order to master the art. Orchestral musicians sometimes do this, co-principals in particular earn a bit on the side in this way Many professional musicians import their reed cane Oboes require thicknesses of about 10 millimeters.

The reed is considered the part of oboe playing that makes it so difficult because slight variations in temperature, altitude and climate will change a working reed into an unplayable collection of cane. In English, prior to , the standard instrument was called a "hautbois", "hoboy", or "French hoboy"; the spelling of oboe was adopted into English c. The regular oboe first appeared in the midth century. This name was used for its predecessor, the shawm , from which the basic form of the hautbois was derived. Major differences between the two instruments include the division of the hautbois into three sections, or joints, the elimination of the pirouette , the wooden ledge below the reed which allowed players to rest their lips; the exact date and place of origin of the hautbois are obscure, as are the individuals who were responsible.

Circumstantial evidence, such as the statement by the flautist composer Michel de la Barre in his Memoire, points to members of the Philidor and Hotteterre families; the instrument may in fact have had multiple inventors. The hautbois spread throughout Europe , including Great Britain , where it was called "hautboy", "hoboy", "hautboit", "howboye", similar variants of the French name, it was the. She was born in St. Nicolaus had a university degree in jurisprudence from the Benedictine University in Salzburg and held many positions of responsibility, including district superintendent in St.

Andrae, he was a skilled musician. During the last portion of his life, he fell into debt, he died on 7 March Nicolaus's possessions were liquidated to help pay the debt, his remaining family lapsed into poverty, they moved to Salzburg, not far away, lived on a charity pension of just eight florins per month supplemented by low-level employment.

Anna Maria's older sister died in , aged nine. Anna Maria herself was not well when she was young: legal documents from the time describe her as "constantly ill" and "the ill bedridden daughter". She married Leopold Mozart in Salzburg in The couple moved into an apartment on the third floor of Getreidegasse 9, their landlord was Lorenz Hagenauer , a close friend of Leopold's, a frequent correspondent on the family's travels. The two surviving children achieved fame; the daughter Maria Anna was called "Nannerl" as a child.

She was a talented musician who performed with her brother on tour, but whose life was limited in its experiences and possibilities; the son, Wolfgang Amadeus, born 27 January , achieved distinction first as a child prodigy as one of the most celebrated of all composers. Assessing the evidence of the surviving letters, Abert writes of her role as spouse: "she understood her husband's phlegmatic and painfully conscientious nature and did all she could to spare him the numerous troubles and worries that stemmed from it, a task that cannot have been easy, given his perpetual mistrust, there is no doubt that she will have drawn a veil over many an unpleasant incident not out of prudence, but from fear.

She was utterly devoted to him and willingly submitted to the strict regime to which he and unquestioningly subjected her. Above all, she was a true mother to her children, who invariably sought refuge with her when their father's strict hand weighed unduly upon them. Wolfgang loved and admired her to distraction. Anna Maria went on the series of tours through Europe , during which the two children were exhibited as prodigies.

She unwillingly remained in Salzburg with Nannerl during the tours of Italy that Wolfgang and Leopold took during — In , she accompanied the now-adult Wolfgang on a job-hunting tour that took him to Augsburg and Paris. While in Paris she got sick and died on 3 July of an undiagnosed illness, she was buried in the cemetery of Saint-Eustache.

Abert, Hermann. Translated by Stewart Spencer. Newly footnoted by Cliff Eisen. New Haven : Yale University Press. Solomon, Maynard. Mozart : A Life. New York: HarperCollins. ISBN OCLC Opera Opera is a form of theatre in which music has a leading role and the parts are taken by singers, but is distinct from musical theater. Such a "work" is a collaboration between a composer and a librettist and incorporates a number of the performing arts, such as acting, scenery and sometimes dance or ballet; the performance is given in an opera house, accompanied by an orchestra or smaller musical ensemble, which since the early 19th century has been led by a conductor.

Opera is a key part of the Western classical music tradition. In traditional number opera , singers employ two styles of singing: recitative , a speech-inflected style and self-contained arias; the 19th century saw the rise of the continuous music drama. In the 18th century, Italian opera continued to dominate most of Europe, attracting foreign composers such as George Frideric Handel. The first third of the 19th century saw the high point of the bel canto style, with Gioachino Rossini , Gaetano Donizetti and Vincenzo Bellini all creating works that are still performed, it saw the advent of Grand Opera typified by the works of Auber and Meyerbeer.

The mid-to-late 19th century was a golden age of opera and dominated by Giuseppe Verdi in Italy and Richard Wagner in Germany; the popularity of opera continued through the verismo era in Italy and contemporary French opera through to Giacomo Puccini and Richard Strauss in the early 20th century.

During the 19th century, parallel operatic traditions emerged in central and eastern Europe in Russia and Bohemia. The 20th century saw many experiments with modern styles, such as atonality and serialism and Minimalism. With the rise of recording technology, singers such as Enrico Caruso and Maria Callas became known to much wider audiences that went beyond the circle of opera fans.

Since the invention of radio and television, operas were performed on these mediums. Beginning in , a number of major opera houses began to present live high-definition video transmissions of their performances in cinemas all over the world. Since , complete performances are live streamed; the words of an opera are known as the libretto. Some composers, notably Wagner, have written their own libretti. Traditional opera referred to as "number opera", consists of two modes of singing: recitative, the plot-driving passages sung in a style designed to imitate and emphasize the inflections of speech, aria in which the characters express their emotions in a more structured melodic style.

Vocal duets and other ensembles occur, choruses are used to comment on the action. Melodic or semi-melodic passages occurring in the midst of, or instead of, are referred to as arioso ; the terminology of the various kinds of operatic voices is described in detail below. During both the Baroque and Classical periods, recitative could appear in two basic forms, each of, accompanied by a different instrumental ensemble: secco recitative, sung with a free rhythm dictated by the accent of the words, accompanied only by basso continuo , a harpsichord and a cello.

Over the 18th century, arias were accompanied by the orchestra. By the 19th century, accompagnato had gained the upper hand, the orchestra played a much bigger role, Wagner revolutionized opera by abolishing all distinction between aria and recitative in his quest for what Wagner termed "endless melody". Subsequent composers have tended to follow Wagner's example, though some, such as Stravinsky in his The Rake's Progress have bucked the trend.

The changing role of the orchestra in opera is described in more detail below. The Italian word opera means "work", both in the sense of the labour done and the result produced; the Italian word derives from the Latin opera, a singular noun meaning "work" and the plural of the noun opus. According to the Oxford English Dictionary , the Italian word was first used in the sense "composition in which poetry and music are combined" in Dafne by Jacopo Peri was the earliest composition considered opera, it was writt. Maria Anna Mozart was born in Salzburg ; when she was seven years old, her father Leopold Mozart started teaching her to play the harpsichord.


Leopold took her and Wolfgang on tours of many cities, such as Vienna and Paris , to showcase their talents. In the early days, she sometimes received top billing, she was noted as an excellent harpsichord player and fortepianist. However, given the views of her parents, prevalent in her society at the time, it became impossible as she grew older for her to continue her career any further. According to New Grove, "from onwards she was no longer permitted to show her artistic talent on travels with her brother, as she had reached a marriageable age.

She stayed home with Leopold when Wolfgang visited Paris and other cities accompanied by his mother. There is evidence that Marianne wrote musical compositions, as there are letters from Wolfgang praising her work, but the voluminous correspondence of her father never mentions any of her compositions, none have survived.

In contrast to her brother, who quarreled with their father and disobeyed his wishes with respect to career path and choice of spouse, Marianne remained subordinate to her father, she fell in love with Franz d'Ippold, a captain and private tutor, but was forced by her father to turn down his marriage proposal. Wolfgang attempted, in vain. Gilgen , a village in Austria about 29 km east of the Mozart family home in Salzburg. Berchtold was twice a widower and had five children from his two previous marriages, whom Marianne helped raise, she bore three children of her own: Leopold Alois Pantaleon and Maria Babette.

An unusual episode in Marianne's life occurred when she gave birth to her first child, a son, named Leopold after his grandfather. Marianne had traveled from her home in St. Gilgen to Salzburg for the birth; when she returned to St. Gilgen, she left her infant in the care of his servants; the elder Leopold stated. In , he extended the arrangement to an indefinite term. Leopold continued to care for his grandson, taking delight in his progress, commencing with the beginnings of musical training. Marianne saw her son on occasional visits; the arrangement continued until the death of her father, on 28 May Biographers differ on.

Little Leopold was ill in his infancy, needed to be kept in Salzburg for this reason, but this does not explain why he was still kept there after his recovery. Another possibility attributes the arrangement to Marianne's delicate health or her need to take care of her stepchildren. Biographer Maynard Solomon attributes the arrangement to Leopold's wish to revive his skills in training a musical genius, as he had done with Wolfgang. He suggests that giving up her son was indicative of Marianne's total subordination to her father's wishes.

When Mozart was a toddler, Nannerl was his idol. According to Maynard Solomon, "at three, Mozart was inspired to study music by observing his father's instruction of Marianne; the two children were close, they invented a secret language and an imaginary "Kingdom of Back" of which they were king and queen. Mozart's early correspondence with Marianne is affectionate, includes some of the scatological and sexual word play in which Mozart indulged with intimates.

Wolfgang wrote entries in Marianne's diary, referring to himself in the third person. Until , he sent her copies of his piano concertos in St. Concerning the relationship between Wolfgang and Marianne in adulthood, authorities differ. According to New Grove, Wolfgang "remained attached to her. He notes, for instance, that after Mozart's visit to Salzburg in , Wolfgang and Marianne never visited each other again, that they never saw each other's children, that their correspondence diminished to a trickle, ceasing in Wolfgang died on 5 December Since this biography had been written from the perspective of Vienna and of Constanze , much of its content was new to Marianne.

In an letter, she wrote: Herr Prof. Niemetschek's biography so reanimated my sisterly feelings toward my so ardently beloved brother that I was dissolved in tears, since it is only now that I became acquainted with the sad condition in which my brother found himself. Marianne's husband died in , she returned to Salzburg, accompanied by her two living children and four stepchildren, worked as a music teacher.


In her old age, Marianne had her first encounter in person with Mozart's. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart.

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