Routledge Handbook on the European Union and International Institutions: Performance, Policy, Power

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How do I find a book? Together with France, Germany negotiated the Minsk agreements that to this day define the — as yet unrealized — outlines of a political compromise solution for the conflict. To put pressure on Russia, Germany supported a package of European economic sanctions against Russia but resolutely refused to contemplate military measures advocated by more hawkish elements in the United States, such as arming the Ukraine.

Since Germany accounted for the largest share of EU trade with and foreign direct investment in Russia, the costs of the sanctions had to be borne disproportionately by German business Adomeit Once more, Berlin was faced with rather divergent expectations both at home and abroad, and again the government opted for the traditional form of German leadership that combined the search for a common approach with a willingness to assume a disproportionate part of the costs of the policies adopted.

List of Publications - Joachim A. Koops - Joachim A. Koops

This statement outlined one crucial assumption made by the Merkel government in this crisis, and it had two important implications. The assumption is obvious: the German government held that any break-up of the eurozone would endanger the whole edifice of European integration and thus undermine the overriding policy objective that German foreign policy had pursued since West Germany was founded in The second implication was that keeping the eurozone together represented a very high, perhaps the highest foreign policy priority for Berlin.

Role theory assumes that in international affairs, states function as unitary actors. Modelling states as black boxes implies that their internal workings may be neglected for the purposes of foreign policy analysis. This assumption seems justified if one or both of the following conditions apply. First, the domestic politics that shape foreign policy decisions and, ultimately, a role concept permit coherent and consistent foreign policy results over time and across issue areas. In either case, the domestic politics of foreign policy decision-making are likely to be top-down, with strong leadership by the foreign policy establishment i.

Do those circumstances apply to German foreign policy? They certainly both did before unification, when German foreign policy was confronted with a dangerous, highly militarized conflict between two antagonistic blocks. Since then, Germany has been surrounded by friendly countries, and external threats to German security have become much less obvious and more diffuse.

Coherence and consistency of German foreign policy may also have been affected by a tendency towards complexity and fragmentation in policy-making, driven by the logics of federalism and coalition politics, the proliferation of vested interests and advocacy groups, and a shift in political priorities away from external relations towards domestic issues.

An example of this may have been the famous decision of the German government to abstain in the UN Security Council vote on UNSCR in , which authorized the use of force against the Libyan government to protect the uprising in Eastern Libya against the regime of Muammar Gaddafi Maull Others include German policies on asylum and security, on energy and on emissions in the context of the European Union Hellmann et al.

As I have argued elsewhere, the evidence overall suggests that there has been an erosion in German foreign policy coherence, consistency and effectiveness, but not yet to a degree that would undermine the analytical and explanatory value of a role theoretical approach Maull They key here was the absence of violence as a way to settle conflicts within and between nations. As the international context in which German foreign policy was conducted continued to evolve since , all three preconditions became increasingly precarious, forcing Germany to re-think and modify its traditional foreign policy orientations.

Russia was a country in transition towards a new political and socio-economic order that needed external support and looked to Germany as its principal source of modernization. Finally, Russia represented a defeated former Superpower that needed to be reconciled with its past and its new role in world politics. With the demise of the Warsaw Pact and the Soviet Union, the partnership with the United States underwent important changes, particularly since the year The first administration of George W. Its response to the terrorist attacks on New York and Washington on Sept.

The first deep crisis in the transatlantic relationship erupted over the U. A further shock came with the revelations of Edward Snowden about the activities of U. Finally, there was the election of Donald Trump as 45th president of the United States and the first experiences in their personal encounters that caused Angela Merkel publicly to muse about the reliability of the United States as a partner for Germany. The end of the Cold War and German unification had resulted in a shift in the relative weight of France and Germany within the European Community, now reborn as the European Union; the introduction of the euro, which France had hoped would work against a German preponderance within European integration, did little to halt that shift.

While Paris and Berlin tried hard to keep up the appearances of the Franco-German tandem, since at the latest, the imbalances and the inherent weaknesses of that bilateral relationship have become all too apparent. The revival of the Franco-German partnership had to await the denouement of the socio-economic and political crisis of France, which may now have begun with the implosion of the old party system of the French Vth Republic and the electoral victory of Emmanuel Macron.

Profile and Publications

Since the turn of the century, the German partnership with Russia also has become increasingly fragile Adomeit ; for a different view: Szabo Finally, the opportunity to reconcile Russia with its past and its new role was undermined domestically by the rise of Vladimir Putin and his associates, and internationally by the aggressive unilateralism of the George W. As a civilian power, Germany depends on effective multilateral institutions for at least two important reasons. First, the civilian power role concept implies a degree of international specialization and therefore also of vulnerability.

This is the World Trade Organization , the successor to the old General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade that had governed world trade outside the socialist block during the Cold War. When the WTO was established on Jan. Although there are significant uncertainties that overshadow the future of the WTO notably its failure to complete any significant new measures of trade liberalization during the Doha Round, and the shift towards regional and bilateral free trade agreements , the WTO at the time of writing represents one of the few vibrant elements in the present international order Hoekman forthcoming.

Routledge Handbook on the European Union and International Institutions

Enlargement and the deepening of the European Union , including the Economic and Monetary Union that led to the establishment of the euro as the single currency for at this time 19 member states of the EU, were similarly important and consequential for Germany. This has two important implications for Germany as a civilian power. First, the crisis of European integration absorbs a lot of German energy and resources that otherwise might be available for other purposes.

Second, the crisis of the EU largely deprives Germany of the force multiplier that a vibrant EU could represent as a force in world politics. Yet so far, the record of the EU in promoting that objective has been underwhelming Toje Some of them are, in fact, related to the problems of the EU.

As the commitment of the United States to European security battles against the rise of China in East Asia and a new wave of American isolationism domestically, Europe will have to take on greater responsibility for providing security in Europe and its neighborhood to the East and South.


So far, however, they have not been willing to assume that burden in either of the two organizations. In the early s, it was unable to prevent the violent disintegration of the former Yugoslavia, and could do little to contain similar conflicts between former Soviet republics. It suffered from a blatant misfit between the liberal democratic and humanitarian vision of its Charter of Paris and the authoritarian and repressive realities in many of its member states.

Already in the early years of the s, events in the Persian Gulf demonstrated that the world, that even Europe were much less civilized places than Germany would have liked. At that time, however, it still was preoccupied with the aftermath of unification, and therefore decided to confine its participation in the liberation of Kuwait largely to a huge check to underwrite the U.

Then came the wars in former Yugoslavia.

They taught a reluctant Germany that under certain circumstances it had to accept the use of military force as a necessary means to advance civilizing international relations. It also played an important role in stabilizing the precarious peace in the Balkans since Philippi ; Maull The decision to support the U. There also have been instances such as the eurozone crisis where German leadership has been forceful and single-minded.

Against this, there are other cases, however, in which German leadership has been more traditional as in the migration crisis and, most obviously, in the Ukraine crisis. This form of leadership also involves significant side payments: Germany will often assume a disproportionate share of the collective burden of those policies. Behind all those new constraints, troubles and challenges in German Foreign policy are two ultimative troubling questions. What kind of Europe does Germany want, what kind of Europe would it be willing to accept and support, and to what extent would it be prepared to make sacrifices for this commitment?

Second, what would Germany do if it had no effective multilateral institutions anymore, nor reliable partners? Beck Brunnenmeier, Markus K. Bush, George H. Daalder, Ivo M. The Economist: The migration crisis, Sept. Hanrieder, Wolfram F.

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Holsti, K. Maull, Hanns W. Meiers, Franz-Josef: Zu neuen Ufern? Paterson, William E. Sakwa, Richard: The death of Europe?